List of Hidden GMO Ingredients (from Institute for Responsible Technology)

Resources – Studies

US farmers report widespread GM crop contamination  (February 2014)

A third of U.S. organic farmers have experienced problems in their fields due to the nearby use of genetically modified crops, and over half of those growers have had loads of grain rejected because of GMO contamination, according to a survey from Food & Water Watch. The findings come as the USDA has taken the unusual step of extending the public comment period for a controversial study on how GM and non-GM crops can “coexist.” Nearly half of the farmers polled said they did not believe that GM and non-GM crops could ever coexist, while more than two-thirds said that “good stewardship” is insufficient to address contamination.

Download the study and read the press release

Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance  (February 2014)

This peer-reviewed paper by Anthony Samsel and Stephanie Seneff, published in the Journal of Interdisciplinary Toxicology, links glyphosate to gluten intolerance and celiac disease. “Characteristics of celiac disease point to impairment in many cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved with detoxifying environmental toxins, activating vitamin D3, catabolizing vitamin A, and maintaining bile acid production and sulfate supplies to the gut. Glyphosate is known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes. Deficiencies in iron, cobalt, molybdenum, copper and other rare metals associated with celiac disease can be attributed to glyphosate’s strong ability to chelate these elements. Deficiencies in tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine and selenomethionine associated with celiac disease match glyphosate’s known depletion of these amino acids. Celiac disease patients have an increased risk to non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which has also been implicated in glyphosate exposure. Reproductive issues associated with celiac disease, such as infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects, can also be explained by glyphosate. Glyphosate residues in wheat and other crops are likely increasing recently due to the growing practice of crop desiccation just prior to the harvest.” Glyphosate is sprayed on many non-organic crops including wheat and gluten-containing grains as a drying agent shortly before harvesting.  Download the study.

Scientists issue safety warning over GM food as governments push for public acceptance  (October 2013)

There is no scientific consensus that genetically modified foods and crops are safe, according to a statement released by an international group of over 85 scientists, academics, and physicians. The statement comes in response to recent claims from the GM industry and some scientists and commentators that there is a “scientific consensus” that GM foods and crops are safe for human and animal health and the environment. The statement calls such claims “misleading” and states, “The claimed consensus on GMO safety does not exist.” Signatories of the statement include prominent and respected scientists, including Dr. Hans Herren, former winner of the World Food Prize and an Alternative Nobel Prize laureate. Read the statement, and read a press release

“Wake up before it is too late: Make agriculture truly sustainable now for food security in a changing climate”  (September 2013)

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development’s recent Trade and Environment Review for 2013 states:  “The 2008 food crisis was an important catalyst for realizing the need for a fundamental transformation and questioning some of the assumptions that had driven food, agricultural and trade policy in recent decades. The fundamental transformation of agriculture may well turn out to be one of the biggest challenges, including for international security, of the 21st century. Despite significant increases in agriculture productivity and the fact the world already produces sufficient calories per head to feed a global population of 12-14 billion, hunger has remained a key challenge. Hunger and malnutrition are not phenomena of insufficient physical supply, but results of prevailing poverty, and above all problems of access to food.” Read the study

Severe Corn Rootworm Injury to Bt Hybrids in First-Year Corn Confirmed   (August 2013)

Researchers in the key corn-growing state of Illinois are finding significant damage from rootworms in farm fields planted in a rotation with a genetically modified corn that is supposed to protect the crop from the pests, according to a new report. Evidence gathered from fields in two Illinois counties suggests that pest problems are mounting as the rootworms grow ever more resistant to efforts to fight them, according to the report issued by Michael Gray, a professor of crop sciences at the University of Illinois. Read the report

Superweeds: How Biotech Crops Bolster the Pesticide Industry  (July 2013)

Food & Water Europe examined USDA and EPA data regarding increased use of herbicides that have accompanied the adoption of herbicide-tolerant GE crops and the crisis of weed resistance. “These data make it clear that the problem of herbicide-resistant weeds will not be solved with the intensified use of older, more toxic herbicides like 2,4-D and dicamba.” Read the study or watch a 3:19 minute video based on the report

Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors  (June 2013)

This in-vitro study in human cells shows that glyphosate, the main chemical ingredient of Roundup herbicide, induces the growth of human breast cancer cells via estrogen receptors. This peer-reviewed study published in Food and Chemical Toxicology indicated that “low and environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate possessed estrogenic activity.” The researchers concluded that glyphosate is a xenoestrogen that is functionally similar to estradiol, the most potent human estrogen, and concentrations in the parts-per-trillion range had carcinogenic effects. Read the study

Sustainability and Innovation in Staple Crop Production in the US Midwest  (June 2013)

A peer-reviewed study published in the International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. University of Canterbury researchers led by Jack Heinemann found that the biotechnologies used in North American staple crop production are lowering yields and increasing pesticide use compared to western Europe. Conventional plant breeding, not genetic engineering, is responsible for yield increases in major U.S. crops.  Read the study

Farmer’s Choice of Seeds in Four EU Countries Under Different Levels of GM Crop Adoption  (May 2013)

This study by Environmental Sciences Europe finds no evidence to support claims that restrictions on planting GM crops have decreased seed choices for farmers in Australia, Switzerland, and Germany where GM crops have not been used. Diversity is better achieved without GM crops. “In contrast, we observed that in Spain, which has adopted GM maize, the seed market was more concentrated with fewer differentiated cultivars on offer. In Spain, overall numbers of maize cultivars declined, with an increasing number of non-GM cultivars being replaced by GM cultivars.”  Read the study 

Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases  (April 2013)

A peer-reviewed report, published in the scientific journal Entropy, authored by Stephanie Seneff, a research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Anthony Samsel, a retired science consultant from Arthur D. Little, Inc. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup, is the most popular herbicide used worldwide. The industry asserts it is minimally toxic to humans, but this report finds otherwise. Glyphosate is linked to a wide range of health problems and diseases, including Parkinson’s, infertility, and various cancers because it interferes with the body’s detoxification process. There’s a family of fifty different enzymes collectively known as Cytochrome P450, which are the detoxification heavy hitters in the human body. According to the report, glyphosate destroys the CYP450 detoxification pathways. When the CYP450 pathways are destroyed, it results in altered gut bacteria and ultimately all the western-related, chronic diseases.  Read the study. Read a Reuters news report about the study.

Long-Term Agroecological Research Experiment Supports Organic Yields, Soil Quality, and Economic Performance in Iowa  (April 2013)

A long-term study on soil health published in Crop Management demonstrated that organic farming not only builds healthy soil and sequesters carbon, but can also boost yields per acre. The study summarizes results from the Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) Experiment, one of the longest running replicated comparisons of organic and conventional agriculture in the country. Read the study

Seed Giants vs. U.S. Farmers  (February 2013)

The Center for Food Safety reports Monsanto has alleged seed patent infringement in 144 lawsuits against 410 farmers and 56 small farm businesses in at least 27 U.S. states as of January of 2013. Monsanto, DuPont, and Syngenta together hold 53 percent of the global commercial seed market, which the report says has led to price increases for seeds — between 1995 and 2011, the average cost of planting one acre of soybeans rose 325 percent and corn seed prices went up 259 percent. Read the report

Long Term Toxicity of a Roundup Herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant Genetically Modified Maize  (November 2012)

The Séralini study was the first to examine the effects of eating a commercialized GM maize and its associated pesticide over the long term. Researchers found that NK603 GM maize and Roundup produced severe toxic effects, including cancerous tumors, in rats fed the diet for two years (which is the normal lifespan of the test subjects). The study showed that the 90-day feeding tests on animals previously used by industry to validate the release of GMOs for commercial or agricultural use were of little use. The findings were shouted down by a chorus of critics, who claimed the study was flawed. But many critics were later exposed as having links with the GM industry or to be involved in GM crop approvals, and thus were not independent. Read the study. Read about the controversy.

Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops on Pesticide Use in the US: the First Sixteen Years  (September 2012)

Data presented by noted organic researcher Dr. Charles Benbrook of Washington State University analyses pesticide use on GM and non-GM equivalent crops over the first 16 years of use, from 1996 to 2011. The analysis is based on widely accepted USDA data. Benbrook’s new data challenge conventional wisdom on GM crops and pesticide use. Contrary to often-repeated claims that today’s genetically-engineered crops have, and are reducing pesticide use, the spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds in herbicide-resistant weed management systems has brought about substantial increases in the number and volume of herbicides applied. Read the study.

GMO Myths and Truths  (June 2012)

An evidence-based examination of claims made for the safety and efficacy of genetically modified crops. A large and growing body of scientific and other authoritative evidence shows that the positive claims do not match the reality. Conventional plant breeding, in some cases helped by safe modern technologies like gene mapping and marker assisted selection, continues to outperform GM in producing high-yield, drought-tolerant, and pest- and disease-resistant crops that can meet the world’s present and future food needs. This study was prepared by Greenpeace.  Download the study

Cytotoxicity on human cells of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac Bt insecticidal toxins alone or with a glyphosate-based herbicide.  (February 2012)

This is the first study that provides evidence on the toxicity of Bt protein in human cells. The study shows that low doses of Bt biopesticide CryA1b as well as the glyphosate herbicide, Roundup, kill human kidney cells. The Bt biopesticide conferring insect resistance and the glyphosate tolerance trait tied to the use of glyphosate herbicides account for almost all the GM crops grown worldwide.  Read a summary by Dr. Eva Sirinathsinghji. Download the study.

Golden Lies: The Seed Industry’s Questionable Golden Rice Project  (January 2012)

A Foodwatch report by Dr. Christoph Then. Golden Rice is set to be launched on the market in 2013. Advocates maintain that rice genetically engineered to produce beta carotene is a necessity in the fight against vitamin A deficiency in developing countries. “It is still not possible to judge whether or not Golden Rice is even technically able to combat vitamin A deficiency. No data has been made available on the degradation rate of its carotenoid content (in particular during storage), nor on its bioavailability. So far not a single feeding study on the rice has been published.” Critics claim a better approach is supplementation and home gardening, and that genetic engineering does not address root problems of political instability, lack of funds, or a lack of political will to combat underlying causes. It is believed that if Golden Rice is commercialized, it will open the door to GE rice worldwide. Read the report

Eight Ways Monsanto Fails at Sustainable Agriculture  (January 2012)

The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) examined Monsanto’s claims that it is providing sustainable agriculture. Upon examination, it was found that Monsanto’s biological tampering has done little to increase crop yields. It was also found that the company stands in the way of proven solutions, and that the company has held back the development of sustainable agriculture. UCS is a 501(c)3 nonprofit science advocacy group based in the United States, founded at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is known as an independent, reliable source of scientific analysis.  Read the report

Roundup and Birth Defects  (June 2011)

One of the main points of this report is that regulatory authorities decreed that glyphosate does not cause birth defects; however, that conclusion is directly contradicted by the evidence in industry’s own studies. These industry studies, submitted by companies including Monsanto in support of glyphosate’s approval in the EU, showed that glyphosate (marketed as RoundUp) causes birth defects in experimental animals. These effects were found not only at high doses, but also at mid and lower doses. This report was prepared by Earth Open Source, a non-profit organization incorporated in the U.K. with international scope. Read the report

GE DNA found to cross the placental barrier:  “Maternal and Foetal Exposure to Pesticides Associated to Genetically Modified Foods”  (May 2011)

This is a groundbreaking, peer-reviewed study which found that three pesticides associated with GE crops and GE food have been detected in human blood serum in women not associated with the use of the pesticides. This demonstrates that GE toxins cross the placenta in the womb and contradicts assurances from regulators that toxic Bt protein in GE crops is broken down during digestion. Download the PDF

Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops on Pesticide Use: The First Thirteen Years (November 2009)

Genetically-engineered corn, soybeans, and cotton now account for the majority of acres planted to these three crops. The basic finding, by researcher Charles Benbrook, is that farmers applied 318 million more pounds of pesticides in the last 13 years as a result of planting GE seeds. Read the report

Academy of Environmental Medicine Calls for Moratorium on GMOs  (May 2009)

The American Academy of Environmental Medicine (AAEM) released its position paper on genetically modified foods stating that “GM foods pose a serious health risk” and calling for a moratorium on GM foods. Citing several animal studies, the AAEM concludes “there is more than a casual association between GM foods and adverse health effects” and that “GM foods pose a serious health risk in the areas of toxicology, allergy and immune function, reproductive health, and metabolic, physiologic and genetic health.”  Read the paper

Failure to Yield  (April 2009)

A report by the Union of Concerned Scientists evaluating the performance of genetically engineered crops under real world conditions after more than a decade. “GE soybeans have not increased yields, and GE corn has increased yield only marginally on a crop-wide basis. Overall, corn and soybean yields have risen substantially over the last 15 years, but largely not as result of the GE traits. Most of the gains are due to traditional breeding or improvement of other agricultural practices.” Read the report

Articles

The Genetically Modified Food Debate: Where Do We Begin?  (July-August 2013)

Grist magazine’s 6-part series on genetic engineering of food. A beginner’s discussion of the issues.

Books

Documentaries

Websites

 

Glyphosate Research

Glyphosate pathways to modern diseases V: Amino acid analogue of glycine in diverse proteins

Journal of Biological Physics and Chemistry Volume 16(June):9-46 · June 2016, Stephanie Seneff and Anthony Samsel

“The correlation data together with the direct biological evidence make a compelling case for glyphosate action as a glycine analogue to account for much of glyphosate’s toxicity. Glufosinate, an analogue of glutamate, likely exhibits an analogous toxicity mechanism. There is an urgent need to find an effective and economical way to grow crops without the use of glyphosate and glufosinate as herbicides.” Download the paper

Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases IV: cancer and related pathologies

Journal of Biological Physics and Chemistry 15(3):121-159 · January 2015, Stephanie Seneff and Anthony Samsel

“Epidemiological evidence supports strong temporal correlations between glyphosate usage on crops and a multitude of cancers that are reaching epidemic proportions, including breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, thyroid cancer, liver cancer, bladder cancer and myeloid leukaemia. Here, we support these correlations through an examination of Monsanto’s early studies on glyphosate, and explain how the biological effects of glyphosate could induce each of these cancers. We believe that the available evidence warrants a reconsideration of the risk/benefit trade-off with respect to glyphosate usage to control weeds, and we advocate much stricter regulation of glyphosate.” Download the paper

Glyphosate pathways to modern diseases V: Amino acid analogue of glycine in diverse proteins

Surgical Neurology International 6(1):45 · March 2015, Anthony Samsel

“A recent study on cows fed genetically modified Roundup®‐Ready feed revealed a severe depletion of serum Mn. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup®, has also been shown to severely deplete Mn levels in plants. Here, we investigate the impact of Mn on physiology, and its association with gut dysbiosis as well as neuropathologies such as autism, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), depression, anxiety syndrome, Parkinson’s disease (PD), and prion diseases.” Download the paper

Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance

Interdisciplinary toxicology 6(4):159-184 · December 2013, Stephanie Seneff and Anthony Samsel

“Glyphosate is known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes. Deficiencies in iron, cobalt, molybdenum, copper and other rare metals associated with celiac disease can be attributed to glyphosate’s strong ability to chelate these elements. Deficiencies in tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine and selenomethionine associated with celiac disease match glyphosate’s known depletion of these amino acids. Celiac disease patients have an increased risk to non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which has also been implicated in glyphosate exposure. Reproductive issues associated with celiac disease, such as infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects, can also be explained by glyphosate. Glyphosate residues in wheat and other crops are likely increasing recently due to the growing practice of crop desiccation just prior to the harvest. We argue that the practice of “ripening” sugar cane with glyphosate may explain the recent surge in kidney failure among agricultural workers in Central America. We conclude with a plea to governments to reconsider policies regarding the safety of glyphosate residues in foods.” Download the paper

Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases

Entropy 15(4):1416-1463 · April 2013, Stephanie Seneff and Anthony Samsel

“We explain the documented effects of glyphosate and its ability to induce disease, and we show that glyphosate is the “textbook example” of exogenous semiotic entropy: the disruption of homeostasis by environmental toxins.” Download the paper